How to calculate international sea freight?

In the global trade, shipping occupies a very large market, and the demand is stable and huge. From a global point of view, shipping is one of the most important modes of transport in the international exchange of goods, and the proportion of cargo transport accounts for more than 80% of the total international cargo transport. From the domestic point of view, at present, about 95% of China’s international trade goods are completed by sea, and sea transport is the largest mode of transport in China’s foreign trade.Sea freight calculationForeign trade sea freight generally have two ways: the first FCL sea freight calculation, FCL sea freight = basic sea freight + sea surcharge; The second kind of shipping LCL cost calculation, shipping LCL cost = according to the volume and weight calculation after taking the largest.International shipping1. Freight calculation of FCLFCL sea freight = Basic sea freight + sea surcharge. Among them: the “basic sea freight” is set by the shipping company and will not change within a certain period of time. “Marine surcharge” is divided into: fuel surcharge, port congestion surcharge, etc. Usually, the price quoted by the freight forwarder is the “ALLIN” price, which is the sum of the above two costs.1. Basic freightBasic freight = basic freight per unit x FCL2. Port surchargePort Surcharge 1 = Unit port surcharge x FCL (surcharge based on container number)Port surcharge 2 = unit port surcharge × Votes (surcharge calculated by votes) Vote explanation: For example, if you arrange 2 20 ‘GP for a shipment, a bill of lading will be classified as one vote.Ii. Shipping LCL fee calculationSea LCL charge = the largest by volume and weight.1. Calculated by volume = unit basic freight × total volume (unit of measurement :CBM – cubic number) (the minimum charge in Marine LCL is 1CBM, that is, your goods are less than 1CBM and you have to be charged by 1CBM)2. Calculated by weight = unit basic freight × total gross weight (unit of measurement :TON – ton) (the minimum charge in Marine LCL is 1TON, that is, your goods are less than 1TON but also have to be charged by 1TON)3. LCL surcharge calculation:Port Surcharge 1:= LCL surcharge ×RT(surcharge based on RT)Port Surcharge 2:= LCL surcharge x number of votes (surcharge based on number of votes)(Explanation of votes: For example, if you arrange 2 sea LCL goods for a vote of goods, a bill of lading is classified as a vote, and this is generally less.)Choose which shipping cost is more cost-effectiveIn general, the choice of which shipping cost is cost-effective depends on several factors:1. Quantity and size of the goodsIf the quantity and size of the cargo are smaller, it may be more economical to ship LCL by sea;If the quantity and size of the goods are large, it may be more cost-effective to ship by FCL.2. Destination and distanceIf the destination is far away and the shipping time is long, the FCL shipping cost is relatively low;If the destination is closer, the LCL fee may be more economical.3, the degree of time urgencyIf time is tight and the goods need to be delivered to the destination as soon as possible, air freight may be a better choice.If time is relatively available, shipping is a more economical option.4. Level of service requiredIf a higher level of service is required (e.g. cargo tracking, insurance, etc.), FCL shipping may be more suitable;If the level of service required is not high, the LCL charges by sea may be more economical.Taking the above factors into consideration, you can choose the most cost-effective way of shipping fees according to the actual situation. Of course, when doing export business, you also need to pay attention to the packaging of goods, the preparation of transportation documents and customs duties and other related matters.About Marine surchargeIn addition to the “pure freight”, there are a variety of additional costs, such as fuel surcharges, currency depreciation fees, dock handling fees, etc., today take you to understand.Marine Surcharges generally refer to the various surcharges (Additional rates) charged by the carrier to make up for losses due to various reasons of the ship, goods, port and other aspects, which will cause the carrier to increase certain shipping costs during transportation.1. Common Marine surchargesFuel Surcharge (BAF)Due to the increase in fuel price, the fuel cost of the ship exceeds the fuel cost in the original approved transportation cost, and the shipping company adds a surcharge to compensate for the increase in fuel cost without adjusting the basic freight rate.Low Sulphur Fuel Surcharge (LSS)A surcharge to cover the increased cost of using low sulphur fuel for vessels operating in the new sulphur oxide emission control area.Currency depreciation Fee (CAF)Due to the exchange rate changes in the international financial market, resulting in the depreciation of the currency in which the freight is collected, the shipping company adds a surcharge to make up for the loss in the currency exchange process.Terminal handling charge (THC)The cost of moving goods from ship’s rail to container yard.Other common surchargesSurcharges derived from the characteristics of the goods, such as excess weight, extra long, extra large pieces; Surcharges derived from transportation and port reasons, such as direct surcharges, transshipment surcharges, port surcharges, etc.; Temporary surcharges, such as port congestion surcharge, detour surcharge, alternative port surcharge, change of port of discharge surcharge, peak season surcharge, etc.; Additional charges derived from other reasons, such as container imbalance surcharges, security surcharges, inland fuel surcharges, etc.If it is not possible to determine whether the Marine surcharge should be included in the customs value, an application for price pre-determination can be submitted to the customs of the territory.Two, there are several ways to release goods by sea, what is the differenceIn international trade, understanding several common delivery methods can not only ensure the safety of the goods, but also send the goods to customers in a timely manner through different ways, which means that you can recover the payment as soon as possible and avoid capital turnover difficulties. The following focuses on several international shipping delivery methods and differences:1. Telex Release(1) Definition: It is short for telegraph delivery. The bill of lading information is sent to the shipping company of the port of destination by electronic message or electronic message, and the consignee can replace the bill of lading with the telex release copy stamped with the telex release seal and the telex release guarantee letter. The shipping company informs the agent of the port of destination to release the goods, without the need for the original bill of lading, as long as it proves that it is the consignee and the telex release person, it can pick up the goods. In popular terms, the shipper does not need to get the bill of lading, and the consignee picks up the goods with identification.(2) Process: The procedure of telex release is very simple. After the telex release guarantee letter applies to the shipping company for telex release, the shipping company will send the bill of lading information to the destination shipping company through electronic message or electronic information to notify the destination port agent to release the goods. The consignee can replace the bill of lading with the copy of the bill of lading stamped with the telex release seal and the telex release guarantee letter for delivery.(3) Advantages: convenient, fast, safe, can reduce the risk of bill of lading loss.(4) Disadvantages: the shipper can not control the right to the goods, and telex release has additional telex release costs.(5) Note: Not all countries can do telex release, such as Cuba, Venezuela, Brazil and some countries in Africa can not do telex release.2. OCEAN BILL(B/L)(1) Definition: original bill of lading issued by the shipping company. It is a kind of document of real right, according to which the consignee takes delivery of the goods, it can be endorsed for transfer, is an important document; The Shipper will get the original bill of lading from the forwarder, scan it to CNEE(Consignee, that is, the consignee), and arrange payment. Then the Shipper will send the whole set of bills of lading by express mail to CNEE, who will exchange the original bill of lading for the bill of lading to pick up the goods. Ocean bills of lading are used more.(2) Process: After the consignor gets the original bill of lading, scan it and send it to the consignee. After the normal payment, the consignor will express the whole set of bill of lading to the consignee, and the consignee will change the bill of lading to the shipping company with the original bill of lading to pick up the goods.(3) Advantages: the bill of lading is a document of real right, with this way of delivery, than other ways without a single delivery risk is less, and there is no additional document costs, international shipping in the use of this way of delivery.(4) Disadvantages: not suitable for short sea transport, easy to lead to import delivery delays, resulting in additional demurrage.3. SWB(Sea Waybill)(1) Definition: Short for Sea Way Bill, it is a release form of bill of lading. Once out of SWB, the cargo rights transfer from Shipper to CNEE, that is to say, CNEE can directly pick up the goods, SWB pick up the goods do not need the original, and do not need telex release fee, for trusted companies can adopt this form of release.(2) Advantages: fast delivery, quick delivery, convenient, fast delivery, less than telex release fee. More used: after receiving all the payment can go to sea waybill; Multinational companies, subsidiaries in China, specializing in purchasing for foreign parent companies, in order to facilitate the delivery of goods, can go to sea waybills.(3) Disadvantages: Generally no way to control the goods.4. Release invoice at port of destination(1) Definition: the meaning of releasing goods. This way of release is rarely used, and will be used in the following special circumstances: if the bill of lading is lost, the shipper will write the letter of guarantee to the shipping company or the agent will release the document to the consignee; The bill of lading is late, and the goods arrive, in order to pick up the goods early, you can also take the letter of guarantee instruction to release the goods.(2) Application scenario: In the absence of special circumstances, this method is generally not used.Summarize the differences:SWB is the ship’s BILL of lading, a bit similar to telex release, once confirmed as a SEA WAY BILL, the agent will directly release the goods to the consignee after the arrival of the port;Telex release, even if the goods arrived at the port for a long time, as long as the shipper did not notify the agent in writing to release the goods, the agent will not release the goods to the consignee;The main difference between SWB and B/L is that SWB does not have the function of document of title, bill of lading is a kind of document of title, bill of lading can be transferred by endorsement (indicative bill of lading), sea waybill can not be transferred, the shipper of sea waybill can only be the consignee indicated on the sea waybill;As long as the customer’s payment is collected, the above forms of delivery are not risky.The following is a detailed description of ocean bills of lading, see what you know?In foreign trade, a document issued by the transport department to the consignor when the goods are carried. The consignee shall take delivery of the goods by the bill of lading to the transport department of the destination of the goods. The bill of lading shall become effective only after it is signed by the carrier or the ship. It is one of the valid documents for sea cargo declaration to the customs. The following Xiaobian gives you a list of nine categories, as follows:1, according to the bill of lading consignee’s title(1) Named Bill of lading (Straight B/L) : refers to the bill of lading with a specific person or company name filled in the column of consignee on the bill of lading (straight). The named consignee takes delivery of the goods when he delivers an original bill of lading to the carrier or its agent. Although a named bill of lading is a document of rights, it is not negotiable. In China, registered bills of lading are not transferable.Bearer B/L (or Open B/L, or Blank B/L) : the bill of lading does not contain any words of consignee or ORDER, that is, any holder of the bill of lading has the right to take delivery. A bill of lading for delivery of goods to whomever is the holder of the bill of lading. If the bill of lading (1) expressly states that it is a bearer bill of lading; 2. It refers to the consignee as anonymous; (3) It serves as an instruction bill of lading but fails to indicate under whose instruction; 4. It is an order bill of lading endorsed in blank. Blank bill of lading is negotiable without endorsement.(3) Order B/L: A bill of lading containing the words “to Order” or “to the Order of a person” in the consignee column. The former is called a blank order bill of lading, and the carrier shall deliver the goods according to the instructions of the shipper; The latter is called a named order bill of lading, and the carrier delivers the goods on the instructions of the named orderer.2, according to whether the goods have been shippedA Bill of lading (Shipped B/L, or On Board B/L) : : means a bill of lading issued by the carrier or its authorized agent to the shipper on the basis of the mate’s receipt after the goods have been shipped. If the carrier issues an on-board bill of lading, it confirms that he has loaded the goods on board(2) Received for Shipment B/L: It is a bill of lading issued by the carrier at the request of the shipper when the goods are received from the shipper but have not yet been loaded.3, according to the bill of lading with or without annotations(1) Clean B/L: A bill of lading in good apparent condition at the time of shipment, free from any damage, poor packing or other obstacles to the settlement of foreign exchange notation.Unclean B/L or Foul B/L: An Unclean B/L or foul B/L is a bill of lading marked by the carrier on the bill of lading with comments on the poor condition of the goods and packaging or defects, such as wet, oil, dirt, rust, etc.4. Divided according to different modes of transportation① Direct B/L: refers to the goods from the port of loading after loading, without changing ships directly to the port of discharge issued by the bill of lading.Transhipment B/L: refers to the full bill of lading issued by the carrier at the port of loading after the goods are transshipped in the way to the port of destination.(Through B/L) : refers to the goods to be transported through two or more modes of transport (land, sea, sea, air, sea, sea, etc.), by the first carrier (the carrier of the first ship transport) after collecting the full freight, issued at the place of departure to the port of destination through the transport bill of lading. Although the through bill of lading covers the whole carriage, the carrier of each journey issuing the bill of lading is only responsible for the damage of the cargo during one part of the voyage carried by it, which is the same in nature as the transshipment bill of lading.MultimodaL Transport B/L or Intermodal Transport B/L: refers to the goods by sea, inland river, railway, road, air and other two or more modes of transport for joint transport and signed for the whole transport of the bill of lading.5. Divided according to the simplicity of the bill of lading(1) Full Form B/L: as opposed to a short form bill of lading, it refers to a bill of lading that in addition to the matters recorded in the bill of lading format printed on the front, the back contains detailed terms on the rights and obligations between the carrier and the shipper and the consignee. Because of the many clauses, it is also called “complicated bill of lading”.(2) Short Form B/L, or Simple B/L: also known as short form B/L, abbreviated B/L, is the phase

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