What are the functions of international shipping ports?

Ports are special nodes in international logistics, serving as hubs and hubs for water and land transportation, distribution centers for industrial and agricultural products and foreign trade import and export materials, as well as places for ships to dock, load and unload goods, load and unload passengers, and supplement supplies.The port is composed of water and land. The water area usually includes the approach channel, anchorage, and harbor basin. The entry channel must ensure the safe and convenient entry and exit of ships into the port, with sufficient depth and width, appropriate position, direction, and curvature radius of bends. The channel width for large ships is 80-300 meters, and for small ships it is 50-60 meters; An anchorage refers to a water area with natural or artificial cover conditions that can withstand strong winds and waves. Ships can anchor, wait for berthing at the dock, or leave the port here; A harbor pool refers to a water area directly adjacent to the land area of a port, which is used for ships to dock, temporarily berth, and turn around.International shipping portsLand area refers to the land area used for loading, unloading, storage, transportation, and passenger distribution of port supplies. On land, there are inbound land channels (railways, roads, transportation pipelines, etc.), loading and unloading areas in front of the dock, and rear areas of the port. The front loading and unloading operation area is used for distributing goods, arranging warehouses or storage yards (front yard) for railway, road, loading and unloading machinery and equipment at the front of the dock, as well as waiting halls for ships. The rear area of the port is used for arranging railways, roads, warehouses or yards (rear yards) for storing goods for a long time, port ancillary facilities (garages, parking lots, machinery repair workshops, tool rooms, substations, fire stations, etc.), as well as administrative and service buildings.The equipment includes onshore equipment, port inland transportation machinery and equipment, water loading and unloading transportation machinery and equipment, etc. Land equipment includes intermittent loading and unloading machinery (container cranes, unloaders, etc.), continuous loading and unloading machinery (belt conveyors, bucket elevators, etc.), power supply and lighting equipment, communication equipment, water supply and drainage equipment, fire prevention equipment, etc. The inland transportation machinery and equipment in Hong Kong include trains, heavy-duty trucks, self-propelled transport vehicles, and pipeline conveying equipment. Water loading and unloading transportation machinery equipment includes cranes, tugboats, barges, and other port operation ships, as well as underwater transportation pipelines, etc

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